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全球抗疫英雄谱——奋战在国际抗击新冠肺炎(COVID-19)一线的医护人员

时间:2020-07-28 09:53:39 来源:凯发体育官网app下载-凯发体育app 作者:宣传联络部

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牛津大学詹纳研究所负责人阿德里安·希尔(Adrian Hill):领导牛津大学新冠疫苗研究的爱尔兰科学家

 

阿德里安·希尔(Adrian Hill)是牛津大学詹纳研究所负责人该研究所致力于为发展中国家研发艾滋病、疟疾和结核病传染病的疫苗。曾设计了一项医疗卫生干预措施,改善撒哈拉以南非洲地区和其他地区贫困人口的生活。目前,希尔博士正在领导牛津大学詹纳研究所的研究人员研发针对新冠病毒的疫苗。

这位62岁的爱尔兰科学家先后在三一学院和牛津大学学医1988年,他加入了牛津韦瑟罗尔分子医学研究所,开始在西非从事免疫遗传学研究。

2014年埃博拉疫情暴发后,希尔博士率先领导科研团队在西非针对埃博拉疫苗进行了临床试验,在疫苗研究工作中建立了良好的声誉。他领导研发的疟疾疫苗经过临床试验,被公认为最有希望治疗这种疾病的疫苗之一

希尔博士一直致力于发挥医学力量为世界上一些贫困地区提供医疗卫生方面的支持与帮助。他在研发针对埃博拉和疟疾疫苗,开展传染病免疫学疫苗学研究以及人类遗传学研究,尤其是对结核病麻风病败血症其他细菌性疾病的敏感性和细胞内病原体的疫苗的易感性方面,积累了丰富的医学知识和经验

目前,希尔博士领导科研团队将研究重点转移到了新冠病毒上。他领导着牛津大学詹纳研究所联合牛津疫苗小组共同研发新冠疫苗。该团队于2020年1月20日开始研发疫苗,最近几周,疫苗研发工作取得了重大阶段性成果。权威医学杂志《柳叶刀》公布了该研究第一阶段测试结果,研究表明该疫苗没有早期安全隐患,并且在免疫系统的两个部分均引起了强烈的免疫反应。疫苗接种后14天内引发T细胞反应这意味着能够攻击感染冠状病毒的细胞的白细胞在两周之内作出反应。此外,疫苗在接种后28天之内出现了抗体反应,而抗体能够中和病毒

在研究过程中研究人员在接种疫苗的志愿者体内检测出中和抗体科学家表示,18至55岁的人群在接种疫苗后会出现反应,并且这种反应会持续两个月。“这是我们1000多人进行第一阶段临床试验后,通过观察疫苗的安全性和免疫反应得出结论。”希尔教授表示,一项用于评估该疫苗有效性的大型试验仍在进行,招募了大约10000名志愿者。

该项研究的下一个步骤,就是确认疫苗是否能够有效预防新冠肺炎。该研究获得政府拨款8400万英镑第三阶段试验的时间取决于是否有足够的志愿者在日常生活中接触冠状病毒,以检测人们在接种疫苗后是否受到了保护。这项试验取决于社区感染水平,可能需要几个月的时间。 

 

 

Meet the Irish scientist behind Oxford's coronavirus vaccine

 

Adrian Hill is the leading scientist among the team of researchers who are striving to develop a working vaccine for Covid-19 through clinical trials. 

The Irish doctor's coronavirus vaccine has been described by WHO as the leading candidate for a working vaccine. 

The 62-year-old doctor grew up in Ranelagh in Dublin and attended Belvedere College. 

He then went on to study medicine at Trinity College and transferred to the University of Oxford in 1978 where he completed his medical degree in 1982. 

During his time as a student in the 1980s, Dr Hill developed a fascination with vaccines and tropical diseases such as malaria. 

His interest began when he visited his uncle who was a missionary priest working in a hospital during the civil war in Zimbabwe. 

Adrian continued his studies in Oxford until he graduated with a Doctor of Philosophy degree in 1986. 

In 1988, he joined the Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine at Oxford and began working on immunogenetics in West Africa. 

From there he became the leader of an academic course on Human and Animal Vaccinology at Oxford and is now the Director of the Jenner Institute, an Oxford institute which develops vaccines and carries out clinical trials for diseases. 

He also heads a group at the Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics which studies genetic susceptibility factors for common bacterial diseases. 

The Irish vaccinologist has two children with his former wife, Sunetra Guptta who is a well known Indian novelist and professor of theoretical epidemiology at the University of Oxford with an interest in infectious disease agents. 

Dr Hill established his growing reputation for his work on an Ebola vaccine in 2014. 

His team took the lead in the first clinical trial of an Ebola vaccine which targeted the outbreak of the disease in West Africa. 

The team also developed malaria vaccines that have been tested in clinical trials and is one of the most promising vaccines against the disease. 

Adrian is at the forefront of driving the power of medicine to provide healthcare for some of the poorest communities around the world. 

In 2014, Dr Hill gave a statement saying: "Witnessing the events in Africa makes it clear that developing new drugs and vaccines against Ebola should now be an urgent priority. 

"It is tremendous that so many people have worked hard to make this trial happen in short time, and I am enormously grateful to those volunteers who have come forward to take part and to the funders for supporting this trial so quickly. 

"These are initial safety trials of the vaccine and it will be some time before we know whether the vaccine could protect people against Ebola. But we are optimistic that the candidate vaccine may prove useful against the disease in the future." 

He has expertise in vaccines for Ebola and malaria, immunology and vaccinology of infectious diseases, human genetics particularly susceptibility to tuberculosis, leprosy, sepsis and other bacterial diseases as well as vaccines against intracellular pathogens. 

Dr Hill and his team have now shifted their focused onto Covid-19 and are now the leading candidates for a working vaccine. 

The Oxford Covid-19 vaccine trial is being run by the Jenner Institute and Oxford Vaccine Group. 

While Professor Hill is leading the team, other keys members include Prof. Sarah Gilbert, Prof. Andrew Pollard, Prof. Teresa Lambe, Dr Sandy Douglas and Prof. Catherine Green. 

The team began developing a vaccine against the coronavirus on January 20, 2020 and have shown great success in recent weeks. 

The results of the first phase of the trial were published on Monday in The Lancet, a scientific journal, and indicate no early safety concerns and induces strong immune responses in both parts of the immune system. 

The vaccine provoked a T cell response within 14 days of vaccination - this means white blood cells that can attack cells infected with the coronavirus responded within two weeks. 

Additionally, there was an antibody response within 28 days - antibodies are able to neutralise the virus so that it cannot infect cells when initially contracted. 

During the study participants who received the vaccine had detectable neutralising antibodies, which have been suggested by researchers as important for protection. 

Scientists said it produced a reaction in people aged 18 to 55 that lasted at least two months after they were immunised. 

Prof Hill said: “What we’re reporting today is the result of a phase 1 trial in over 1,000 people looking at how well this vaccine performs both in terms of its safety, which is good and its immune responses which are pretty exciting.” 

Hill said that larger trials evaluating the vaccine’s effectiveness, involving about 10,000 people in the UK as well as participants in South Africa and Brazil are still underway. 

Another big trial is hoping to start in the US soon, aiming to enroll about 30,000 people. 

The next step in studying the vaccine is to confirm that it can effectively protect against Covid-19 infection. 

Dr Hill's vaccine will now potentially move forward to more trials where researchers will deliberately attempt to infect test subjects with the virus after they have been given a dose of the vaccine. 

Oxford is working with multinational biopharmaceutical company AstraZeneca for the further development, large-scale manufacture and potential distribution of the Covid-19 vaccine. 

The project has received £84million €75million) of government funding to help accelerate the vaccine’s development. 

The timeline for a phase three trial depends on whether enough participants have been exposed to the coronavirus in everyday life, which should reveal whether those who have received the vaccine are protected. 

This can take months depending on infection levels in the community.

 

来源:University of Oxford, The Irish Sun, Irish Central

 

 

温馨说明:本栏目中文内容由我会根据来源处内容整理并翻译。

 

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